The whole life of Giuseppe Mazzini was consacreted to people’s emancipation. Having this ideal as polar star, Mazzini doesn’t agree the methodology of marxist learning, which was based on the materialistic perspective. Mazzini was persuaded that materialism is a sad vision of the world, which oppresses the spirit and, definitely, it works aganinst the possibility of emancipation.
Giuseppe Mazzini worked on a different point of view, which is completely modern ad perfect to our times: the spiritual perspective of emancipation, through the opening of the initiatic system to a larger number of people.
Because of this reason, the political adversaries tried to reduce the meaning of his action. Therefore, Giuseppe Mazzini remains an half unknown historical personality.
There are also a lot of false document who claims Mazzini to be a conspirator. See, for instance, the letters on Illuminati to Albert Pike.
Mazzini fu un campione della lotta per l’emancipazione durante il Risorgimento. Operò per l’emancipazione del popolo turco (per favorire il nuovo potere laico di Ataturk, insieme ad Adriano Lemmi).
Mazzini (see the Wikipedia biography) became a popular figure to the Italian exiles. While in Marseille, he lived in the apartment of Giuditta Bellerio Sidoli, a beautiful Modenese widow who would become his lover, and organized a new political society called La giovine Italia (Young Italy). Young Italy was a secret society formed to promote Italian unification. Mazzini believed that a popular uprising would create a unified Italy, and would touch off a European-wide revolutionary movement.
In 1833 Mazzini launched a first attempt of insurrection, which would spread from Chambéry (then part of the Kingdom of Sardinia), Alessandria, Turin and Genoa. However, the Savoy government discovered the plot before it could begin and many revolutionaries (including Vincenzo Gioberti) were arrested. The repression was ruthless: 12 participants were executed, while Mazzini’s best friend and director of the Genoese section of the Giovine Italia, Jacopo Ruffini, killed himself. Mazzini was tried in absence and sentenced to death.
Despite this setback (whose victims later created numerous doubts and psychological strife in Mazzini), he organized another uprising for the following year. A group of Italian exiles were to enter Piedmont from Switzerland and spread the revolution there, while Giuseppe Garibaldi, who had recently joined the Giovine Italia, was to do the same from Genoa. However, the Piedmontese troops easily crushed the new attempt.
In the Spring of 1834, while at Berne, Mazzini and a dozen refugees from Italy, Poland and Germany founded a new association with the grandiose name of Young Europe. Its basic, and equally grandiose idea, was that, as the French Revolution of 1789 had enlarged the concept of individual liberty, another revolution would now be needed for national liberty; and his vision went further because he hoped that in the no doubt distant future free nations might combine to form a loosely federal Europe with some kind of federal assembly to regulate their common interests.
On May 28, 1834 Mazzini was arrested at Solothurn, and exiled from Switzerland. He moved to Paris, where he was again imprisoned on July 5. He was released only after promising he would move to England. Mazzini, together with a few Italian friends, moved in January 1837 to live in London in very poor economic conditions.
On April 30, 1837 Mazzini reformed the Giovine Italia in London, and on November 10 of the same year he began issuing the Apostolato popolare (“Apostleship of the People”).
A succession of failed attempts at promoting further uprising in Sicily, Abruzzi, Tuscany and Lombardy-Venetia discouraged Mazzini for a long period, which dragged on until 1840. He was also abandoned by Sidoli, who had returned to Italy to rejoin her children.
Then Mazzini founded several organizations aimed at the unification or liberation of other nations, in the wake of Giovine Italia: Young Germany, Young Poland, Young Switzerland, which were under the aegis of Young Europe (Giovine Europa).
Notwithstanding with the criticism of Karl Marx, who said “that this alleged middle class point of view had become reactionary and the proletariat had nothing to do with it”, Mazzini also created an Italian school for poor people active from november 10, 1841 at 5, Greville Street, London. From London he also wrote an endless series of letters to his agents in Europe and South America, and made friends with Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle. The “Young Europe” movement also inspired a group of young Turkish army cadets and students who, later in history, named themselves the “Young Turks”.
On April 7, 1848 Mazzini reached Milan, whose population had rebelled against the Austrian garrison and established a provisional government. The First Italian War of Independence, started by the Piedmontese king Charles Albert to exploit the favourable circumstances in Milan, turned into a total failure. Mazzini, who had never been popular in the city because he wanted Lombardy to become a republic instead of joining Piedmont, abandoned Milan. He joined Garibaldi’s irregular force at Bergamo, moving to Switzerland with him.
On February 9, 1849 a Republic was declared in Rome, with Pius IX already having been forced to flee to Gaeta the preceding November. On the same day the Republic was declared, Mazzini reached the city. He was appointed as “triumvir” of the new republic on March 29, becoming soon the true leader of the government and showing good administrative capabilities in social reforms. However, when the French troops called by the Pope made clear that the resistance of the Republican troops, led by Garibaldi, was in vain, on July 12, 1849, Mazzini set out for Marseille, from where he moved again to Switzerland.
Mazzini spent all of 1850 hiding from the Swiss police. In July he founded the association Amici di Italia (Friends of Italy) in London, to attract consensus towards the Italian liberation cause. Two failed riots in Mantua (1852) and Milan (1853) were a crippling blow for the Mazzinian organization, whose prestige never recovered. He later opposed the alliance signed by Savoy with Austria for the Crimean War. Also vain was the expeditions of Felice Orsini in Carrara of 1853–54.
In 1856 he returned to Genoa to organize a series of uprisings: the only serious attempt was that of Carlo Pisacane in Calabria, which again met a dismaying end. Mazzini managed to escape the police, but was condemned to death by default. From this moment on, Mazzini was more of a spectator than a protagonist of the Italian Risorgimento, whose reins were now strongly in the hands of the Savoyard monarch Victor Emmanuel II and his skilled prime minister, Camillo Benso, Conte di Cavour. The latter defined him as “Chief of the assassins”.
He founded another journal in London, Pensiero e azione (“Thought and Action”). Then released Doveri dell’uomo (“Duties of Man”), a synthesis of his moral, political and social thoughts.
The new Kingdom of Italy, which had been created in 1861 under the Savoy monarchy, was a delusion for Mazzini. He was frequently in polemics with the course followed by the unification of his country, and in 1867 he refused a seat in the Italian Chamber of Deputies. In 1870, during an attempt to free Sicily, he was arrested and imprisoned in Gaeta. He was freed in October due to the amnesty conceded after the successful capture of Rome, and returned to London in mid-December.
Giuseppe Mazzini died in Pisa in 1872. His funeral was held in Genoa, with 100,000 people taking part in it.